Başlıksız Belge

THE EFFECT OF CARTOONS BROADCASTED ON TELEVISION TO THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS*

Ozcan Demir
Gazi University
odemir@gazi.edu.tr

Ahmet Atan
ahmetatan@hotmail.com

Yucel Gelisli
Gazi University
gelisli@gazi.edu.tr

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analysis the effects of cartoons telecasted on Turkish televisions on the socialization process of elementary education students. The data were collected by the “The Behavior Scale on the Evaluation of the Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary Education Students’ Socialization Process”. Participants were in 18 schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in 9 central counties in Ankara. The characteristics of the variables were assessed and t-test, variance analysis (ANOVA), Kruskal Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U Test was conducted. There was no significant difference found in terms of socializing scale scores (p>0,05) between the television animation film watching hours. There was no significant difference in terms of socialization scale scores between the class levels of the children participating in the research (p>0,05). There was significant difference found in terms of socialization scale scores between the income groups of the families of the children participating in the research (p<0,05). It was concluded in the application process that animation productions telecasted on TV had a partial effect on the socialization process of the primary school students.

Keywords: animation, cinema, mass communication, television, graphic education


Correspondence to: Ozcan Demir, PhD, Department of Photography and Video, Faculty of Fine Arts, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, E-mail: odemir@gazi.edu.tr


Creative Commons License
Journal of Learning and Teaching in Digital Age 2016. © 2016. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

INTRODUCTION

The effect of media on children is one of the major problems in the education and mass communication areas. Developments and diversification experienced in mass communication today have brought along new problems in the context of this issue.

Education is “a discipline involving all knowledge, skills and practices regarding how changing human behavior in a sought direction or making people gain new behavior can be achieved most efficiently” (Erturk, 1982: 9). “A series of continuous changes occur considerably in behavior with repetition or experience in this process” (Morgan, 1998: 77). People are within a change process during their lives and this process contains their behavior as well. The desire for education and development of various behaviors is related to the socialization process basically. In this context, passing on culture, language and values related with these is the problem of the education process.

There are many research conducted on the internalization of social values and norms. “Individuals gain cultural values and norms by means of a process called socialization” (Morgan, 1998: 390). “Socialization means adaptation of persons to the society and learning how to get along with the people they live with” (Baymur, 1972: 295). Family is the first socialization setting for children. School is another source of socialization. Developed mass communication opportunities include tools like cinema and television in this process in modern societies. Socialization process paves the way to ensure sustainment of societies consistently. “Socialization process ensures that each new generation has characteristics quite similar to the previous generation’s despite of some differences” (Morgan, 1998: 390). Imitation in socialization is a method at least as effective as the direct teaching. Socialization is a process starting as soon as the individual starts communication with his/her environment. Passing on cultural values is a part of this process. “Some of the major ways to pass on cultural values are repetition of traditions without comprehending, religious teachings, language and speaking style, songs, rhymes, memorized poems, novels, proverbs and even superstitions” (Baymur, 1972: 295). It is possible to add mass communication devices and especially television as well to all of these tools in the mass communication age.

Socialization can cause behavior changes like teaching processes. In this context, it can be shown as an environmental determinant of behavior. Violence among these is a critical behavior type. Violence behavior is encountered frequently in social area and is included in the interest area of media studies with its social, cultural and psychological roots. It is possible to indicate the detections regarding whether the root of violence is human nature or a socialization process as an important aspect of the results of these researches. Determination of the effects of violence-containing cartoons on the socialization process verifies the effects of television specific mass communication tools.

Socialization is a crucial tool for individuals to learn how to establish communication with other individuals. “Socialization Process” scrutinized in psychology takes violence as a component. Roles of mass communication tools for learning violence and other components in socialization are adapted as the matter of this research.

The socialization process progresses along with learning. In this context, it will be a more correct approach to perceive the content of the learning process by the process of gaining various skills used in academic area and life. Emotional and social learning concepts are used as a classification consisting of the said learning fields. “The person attempting empirically first to explain learning by observation is conjunction theorist Edward Thorndike” (Citing: Aydın, Akbag, Tuzcuoglu, Yaycı and Agır, 2005: 232). In the experiment performed by Thorndike on cats, it was shown that the inexperienced cats reached a solution by imitation when they saw how the experienced cats solved a given puzzle. “In addition, events such as learning to fear from something and liking something; acquiring the secrets of getting along with other people; gaining some social attitudes and some ideals are stronger forms of learning” (citing: Baymur, 1972: 162). Learning is a process consisting of intellectual, emotional and social aspects.

Popularization of mass communication tools and globalization has affected the acculturation process considerably. Adaptation to different cultures has become a crucial problem due to these reasons. This situation is valid for both citizens living in the same country and people settled in different countries.

Social learning hypothesis supports this perception when considered in the viewpoint of Educational Sciences. The contents of mass communication tools have roles in the context of socialization and acculturation with the models they present. The contents offered by mass communication tools are the instructor and carrier of social roles. Cartoons present suggestions regarding such roles with their content. In this context, roles assigned to the individual by the society basically are presented by mass communication tools this time. The plantation thesis, generated by the studies (Gerbner, 1969; Gerbner, 1998; Gerbner & Gross, 1976) on the long term cultural effects of television is defined as “an attempt for the placement and nourishment and growth of a psychological, cultural or ideological message into the consciousness of audience” (Erdogan, 1998). This work aims to reveal the effects of television on socialization in terms of mass communication.

Assessment of the effects of mass communication tools and cartoons on socialization of children is a necessity. The effects of media must be assessed in terms of cultural policies as well. “Cultural values can be acquired by means of imitation, by taking the people in the surrounding as an example and by collaborating with these people” (Baymur, 1972: 295). “When individuals are awarded with the behaviors of the model they observe, they tend to imitate that behavior more” (Aydın, Akbag, Tuzcuoğlu, Yaycı and Agır, 2005: 239).

The most important role of television and cartoons is to present behavior patterns to children. “For a person to learn a behavior, it is necessary to see how that behavior is conducted by others” (Aydın, Akbag, Tuzcuoğlu, Yaycı and Agır, 2005: 241). George Gerbner’s “Plantation Thesis” tackling the idea that violence in television leads to violence in real life has been a critical source of the arguments made in the context of the effects of television (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1986). During the following period, many critics were published about this thesis (Erdogan, 1998). The basic aspect of the published critics has put the limited effects of television in the agenda. According to these researches, television is a tool to make the environment meaningful however it does not have unlimited and independent effects from family and other social organizations. This outcome can be evaluated in the context of social learning theory. Assessment of the effects of graphic design products on the socialization process is an important title for the assessment of the effects of media in the socialization process especially in the context of cartoons.

The question "Are the cartoons broadcasted in Turkish televisions affective on the socialization of elementary school 4th, 5th and 6th graders?” made up the problem of the study. Defining the roles of cartoons providing easily understandable and interesting information for children during their bringing up and determining the roles of cartoons in socialization was the basic objective of the study.

In the context of this problem, research questions are as follows:

1- What is the student participation level in the values in the watched animation films for the socialization of the elementary school 4th, 5 th and 6th graders?

2- Has the animation film watching habits generated a significant difference in the socialization of the elementary school 4th, 5th and 6th graders?

3- Do the animation film watching habits vary significantly according to the class level and age groups in the socialization of elementary school students?

4- Do the animation film watching habits vary significantly, according to

4a. gender,

4b. socio-economic levels,

4c. socio-cultural levels in the socialization of the elementary school 4th, 5th and 6th graders?

5- Do television watching periods form a significant variation in the socialization of elementary school 4th, 5th and 6th graders?

The scale application study was conducted on the fourth, fifth and sixth graders (10-12 years of age) in 18 schools randomly selected from the elementary schools in 9 central counties in Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. The cartoons assessed in the research scope were selected from the cartoons broadcasted throughout Turkey.

METHOD

Research Model

“Scanning model”, a descriptive research model, was selected for the study. The effects of cartoon watching on the socialization of elementary education age children were investigated in the study scope. Therefore, the said model was preferred since the research targeted to convey a current situation as is. “In scanning models, an event, individual or object which is the research subject is defined within their circumstances and as is. They are not attempted to be changed and affected in any way” (Karasar, 2002: 77). Hence, the effects of cartoons on the socialization of the elementary school fourth, fifth and sixth graders (10-12 years of age group elementary education age children) were assessed under the current social conditions.

Population and Sample

10-12 years of age group students (fourth, fifth and sixth graders) in elementary schools in 9 counties within the borders of the Ankara city Metropolitan Municipality made up the research population. In the scale development stage, the application was made with 572 students in the scope of Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and with 350 students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale was prepared to determine the relationship between cartoons and socialization in the research scope and applied to 150 students.

50,3% of 150 students who participated in the research were girls and 49,7% were boys. 75 students who participated in the research were girls and 74 were boys. 1 student did not provide gender information. It is clear that gender distribution of the participants was equal. 1 student did not indicate gender in the scale form.

40% of the students who participated in the research were 10 years old, 48% were 11 years old and 11,3% were 12 and 13 years old. 1 student, making up 0,7% of the students participating in the research, did not indicate age. 51,3% of the students were 4th graders, 34% were 5th graders and 12,7% were 6th graders.

Data collection

“The Behavior Scale on the Evaluation of the Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary Education Students’ Socialization Process” was prepared in triple Likert type and consisted of 35 items and 2 factors. The first factor was about “the behavior of the children toward the society” and the second factor was about “the subjective characteristics of the children”.

Based on the statistics, the reliability coefficient as the internal consistency Cronbach Alpha for the first factor of the scale was .90 and the reliability coefficient for the second factor was .84. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied to assess whether the 2-factor and 35-item structure of the scale was confirmed or not. The fit indices were found as χ2=1770.02, X2/sd= 3.17, RMSEA=0,079, CFI=0.94, NNFI=0.94 and NFI=0.91. When the coefficients were examined showing the relationship between the observed variables and factors of the model illustrating the factorial structure of the scale, it was concluded that the indicated fit indices were at an adequate level. When the fit statistics estimated by CFA were considered, it was decided that the 2-factor structure of the scale that was previously determined fit to the collected data generally.

The score range of the scale was 0,66. According to this, at the level of the choices, 1 - 1,66 range was estimated as I don’t agree (1); 1,67 - 2,33 range was I somewhat agree (2) and 2,34 - 3 range was I agree (3). Based on the scale scores; the 1st sub-dimension 26 - 43,3 was estimated as I don’t agree (1), 43,4 - 60,7 was estimated as I somewhat agree (2) and 60,8 – 78 was estimated as I agree (3). For the 2nd sub-dimension, 9 – 15 was estimated as I don’t agree (1), 15,01 - 21,01 was I somewhat agree (2) and 21,02 – 27 was I agree (3).

RESULTS

The comments on the practices conducted according to the sub-problems of the research are included in this section of the research.

Results for the First Sub-Problem

The data on the student answers about the socialization values included in the cartoons in the research scope are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The Distribution of the Answers provided regarding the Sub-Dimensions included in the Scale


Gender

Girls

Boys

n

Mean

Mod

sd

n

Mean

Mod

sd

Factor 1

75

1,92

1,85

0,45

74

1,94

1,62

0,50

Factor 2

75

1,46

1,00

0,45

74

1,54

1,00

0,47

Scale

75

1,80

1,60

0,41

74

1,84

1,83

0,43


The participation level mean among the girls was 1,92 of the factor (sub-dimension 1) regarding the behavior of the child towards society of the “Scale on the Behavior for the Assessment of the Effects of Cartoons Broadcasted in Turkish Television on the Socialization Level of Elementary Education Age (10-12 Years Age Group) Children”, and it was 1,94 among the boys. The means were at the level of “I somewhat agree”. The mean of the most frequently provided answers of the girl participants was at the level of “I somewhat agree” as 1,85; and the mean of the most frequently provided answers of the boy participants was at the level of “I don’t agree” as 1,62.

The agreement level on the items included in the “factor about the subjective characteristics of children” in the scale (sub-dimension 2) was 1,46 among the girls, and it was 1,54 among the boys. These levels indicate “I don’t agree” thought. The mean of the most frequently given answers by the girls and boys was 1. The averages of the most frequently given answers were at the level of “I don’t agree”.

Considering the scale as a general, the answer mean of the girls was 1,80 and the answer mean of the boys was 1,83. These means show “I somewhat agree” level. The mean of the most frequently answers of the girls was at the level of “I don’t agree” as 1,60 and the mean of the most frequently answers of the boys was at the level of “I somewhat agree” as 1,83.

The answers given to the scale items were for receiving comments of the students on whether they received the message about the said values in the animation films, rather than measuring whether they were socialized or not regarding the values indicated in the scale until the application moment. Socialization takes place by many factors. Mass communication tools are a component in this process. It is thought that the obtained result reveals the place of the animation films in the socialization of children realistically. Rather than explaining a far-reaching and complex process like socialization with only a single factor, it is assessed that numerous factors play a role in this process.

Table 2. How many Hours of Cartoons do you Watch in Television in a Day? - Kruskall Wallis – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

How many Hours of Cartoons
do you watch in Television in a Day?

Kruskall-Wallis H

n

Mean

sd

Mean rank

H

p

Socialization Scale Scores

I don’t watch at all

14

59,6

14,5

61,8

5,7

0,129

Maximum 1 hour

94

62,9

14,2

72,1

2 hours

27

65,8

15,8

80,9

3 hours and more

14

71,1

15,4

96,3


Results for the Second Sub-Problem

The data on the question “Have the animation film watching habits of the elementary education 4th, 5th and 6th graders made a significant difference in their socialization?” are shown in Table 2.

As the daily animation watching period increases, scores of socialization of the participants by animations increase according to Kruskall Wallis test performed on the socialization scale shown in Table 2.

The results of the researches conducted on television-watching habits show that the answers of the children who watch little television and much television to the survey questions differ and the things told by children who watch a lot of television coincide with the world described in television. “People who are exposed to the imaginative television world repeated every day will start to define the real social world with the parameters of the television world” (Seker, 2009: 111). It is possible to assess the results obtained by the scale application as parallel.

There is not a significant difference in terms of socialization scale scores between the television animation film watching hours (p>0,05). Although not significant statistically, as the cartoon film watching hours in television increase, socialization scale scores increase as well.

Results for the Third Sub-Problem

The analysis of the data on the question “Is there a significant difference in the socialization of the elementary education students by animation films according to the age groups of the students?” is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Age Group Scores – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

Age

Kruskal-Wallis H Test

n

Mean

sd

Mean rank

H

p

Socialization Scale Scores

10 years old

60

66,82

15,28

82,78

5,367

0,068

11 years old

72

60,83

14,40

66,53

12 and 13 years old

17

65,47

11,97

83,41


A non-parametric test, Kruskal Wallis test was performed since the age groups did not show normal distribution in the scale. There is no significant difference between the age groups in terms of socialization scale scores in the light of the data shown in Table 3 (p>0,05).

The socialization scale scores of 12-13 years age group children are the highest although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on socialization is the greatest in 12-13 years old group children. The other data that need to be considered here are on 10 years old group children. Although it was thought that the scores of 11 years old group children would be higher since they were more developed mentally, this did not occur. It is thought that higher socialization rates by animation in 10 years old group children have an effect on this.

Results for the Fourth Sub-Problem

At this stage, the analyses of the question "Do cartoon watching habits of the elementary education 4th, 5th and 6th graders show a significant difference in their socialization according to;

4a. gender,

4b. socio-economic levels,

4c. socio-cultural levels?" are included.

4a. The data on the socialization scale scores according to the gender groups of the elementary education students are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Gender Group Scores – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

Gender

t Test

n

Mean

sd

t

p

Socialization Scale Scores

Girls

75

63,13

14,39

-0,532

0,596


Boys

74

64,42

15,10



There is no significant difference between the genders in terms of scale scores according to Table 4 (p>0,05). The socialization scale scores of the boys are higher although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on socialization is greater in the boys.

4b. The data on the socialization scale scores of the elementary education students according to their socio-economic levels are shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Scores according to Socio-Economic Level – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

Mean monthly family income

Paired Comparison

n

Mean

sd

F

p

Socialization Scale Score

650 TL and under

17

68,29

7,97

2,932

0,023

1-4

2-4

2-5

Between 651-900 TL

20

69,75

11,54

Between 901-1150 TL

26

63,31

12,91

Between 1151-1400 TL

26

58,27

13,05

1401 TL and above

43

60,49

17,13


There is no significant difference between the income groups in terms of scale scores according to Table 5 (p<0,05). Since it was seen that there was significant difference between the groups, the groups making up the difference were determined by Post-Hoc LSD paired comparison tests. There is significant difference in terms of scale scores between the children whose family income is between 651-900 TL ( =69,75) and the children whose family income is between 1151-1400 TL ( =58,27).

The socialization scale score of the children, whose family income is between 651-900 TL, is the highest as shown in Table 6. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on socialization is maximum in the children with an income between 651-900 TL ( =69,75). The socialization scores regarding animation of the children whose family income is 650 TL and under ( =68,29) are higher than those of the children whose family income is between 1151-1400 TL ( =58,27). It is possible to interpret this situation as the higher effect of television on socialization in low income families. Total comparison data regarding the socialization scale scores according to socio-economic level groups of the elementary education students are shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Multiple Comparisons of Mean Monthly Family Incomes – Sub-dimension 1

Multiple Comparison

Post-Hoc LSD

Dependent Variable

(I) Mean family monthly income

(J) Mean family monthly income

Mean Difference

(I-J)

Standard Error

p

95% Confidence Interval


Upper limit

Low limit

Factor 1

650 TL and under

Bw 1151-1400 TL

7,785

3,742

0,040

0,380

15,191

Factor 1

Bw 651-900 TL

Bw 1151-1400 TL

9,512

3,569

0,009

2,450

16,573

Factor 1

Bw 651-900 TL

1401 TL and above

7,620

3,247

0,021

1,194

14,046

Socialization Scale Scores

650 TL and under

Bw 1151-1400 TL

10,025

4,314

0,022

1,489

18,561

Socialization Scale Scores

Bw 651-900 TL

Bw 1151-1400 TL

11,481

4,114

0,006

3,341

19,621

Socialization Scale Scores

Bw 651-900 TL

1401 TL and above

9,262

3,743

0,015

1,854

16,669


The scale score difference between the children whose monthly family income is between 651-900 TL and the children whose monthly family income is between 1151-1400 TL is the greatest as shown in Table 6. The difference between the scores of the children whose family income is under 650 TL and the children whose family income is 1161-1400 TL follows this situation. The differences are in the favor of the children with low family income. It is possible to state under the light of the data that the children whose monthly family income is 650 TL and under and the children whose monthly family income is between 651-900 TL are exposed to the socialization effect of animations more intensely.

4c. The data regarding the question “Is there a Significant Difference according to Socio-Cultural Levels” are shown in Table 7, 8 and 9.

The means of the socialization scale scores according to the educational level of the mothers of the elementary education students are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Educational Level of the Mothers – Scale Total Score

Scale Total

Educational Level of the Mothers

N

Mean

sd

F

p

Socialization Scale Score

Elementary school grad and under

42

65,60

13,29

1,512

0,214

Secondary school grad

21

60,43

14,78

High school grad

49

66,02

15,27

College or university grad

31

60,32

15,85


There is no significant difference between the educational levels of the mothers in terms of the socialization scale scores according to Table 7. The socialization scale scores of the children whose mothers are high school graduates are the greatest although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on the socialization is maximum in the children whose mothers are high school graduates. It is possible to state in the assessment about this table that the role of animation on the socialization of the children whose mothers are college graduates is lower.

The means of the socialization scale scores of the elementary education students according to the educational levels of their fathers are shown in Table 8.

Table 8. Educational Level of the Fathers – Scale Total Score

Scale Total

Educational Level of the Mothers

n

Mean

sd

F

p

Socialization Scale Scores

Elementary school grad and under

22

66,82

12,01

0,584

0,627


Secondary school grad

16

65,56

14,34



 

High school grad

48

63,73

14,18

   
 

High school grad

48

63,73

14,18

   
 

College or university grad

54

62,17

16,86

   

There is no significant difference between the educational levels of the fathers in terms of the socialization scale scores according to Table 8. The socialization scale scores of the children, whose fathers are elementary school graduates and under, are maximum although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on socialization is maximum in the children whose fathers are elementary school graduates and under.

Considering the effect of the parents on socialization, it is possible to state that it has a positive effect on the socialization of the children whose parents are educated and have a good level socio-economically. The states of the children of these families are seen as more sufficient in terms of environmental factors. Considering the occupation of the fathers from this aspect, it is assessed as a factor on socialization. However, factors such as media usage, animation types and family attitude in respect to animation and socialization should be assessed together in the process of the socialization of the child by animation.

Research conducted on socialization reveal that the number of siblings in family and the rank of birth of siblings is a factor for socialization. However, this factor differs according to the criteria such as social value of consideration and academic success.

The means of the socialization scale scores according to the sibling numbers of the elementary education students are shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Sibling Number – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

Sibling Number

N

Mean

sd

F

p

Socialization Scale Scores

No sibling

11

64,09

14,20

0,270

0,847

1

65

64,48

13,63

2

42

61,86

15,98

3 and above

25

63,52

16,24


There is no significant difference between the sibling number groups in terms of the socialization scale scores according to Table 9.

The scale scores of the children who have 1 sibling are the highest although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of animation films on socialization is the greatest in children who have 1 sibling. The sibling number is a factor on the socialization of the child according to the socialization research. Single children can develop positive characteristics contrary to the common perception.

It is remarkable in conducted research that single children are advantageous in terms of socialization when compared with children from big families and success-oriented last children. The results obtained in the research show that the sibling number is an effective factor when the effect of animation on socialization is considered. Nevertheless, the results show that children without siblings do not fall behind children with siblings for acquiring social values regarding animation. It is thought that individual characteristic of television watching behavior is effective on this situation as well.

Results for the Fifth Sub-Problem

Television has a role in this field according to many socialization researches (Senyapılı, 2003). Therefore, it is thought that television watching periods have an effect on socialization by animation films. The data on the question “Do TV-watching periods generate a significant difference in the socialization of elementary education 4th, 5th and 6th graders by animation films?” are shown in Table 13.

The means of the socialization scale scores of the elementary education students according to daily television watching hour groups are shown in Table 10.

Table 10. How many Hours of Television do you Watch a Day? – Scale Total Scores

Scale Total

How many hours of television do you watch a day?

n

Mean

sd

F

p

Socialization Scale Scores

1 hour

50

66,04

14,76

0,701

0,553

2 hours

61

61,95

13,93

3 hours

25

64,28

16,79

4 hours and more

12

64,25

15,90

According to Table 10, there is no significant difference between the groups in TV-watching hours in terms of the socialization scale scores. The scale scores of the children who watch TV for 1 hour a day are the highest although not significant statistically. It can be concluded that the effect of cartoons on socialization is the greatest in children who watch TV for 1 hour a day. These data don’t coincide with the data on animation film watching periods on television. As the animation film watching period increases, the socialization score by animation increases; and an increase in television watching period doesn’t increase animation socialization score. As the television watching period of children increases, the time assigned to animation within this period doesn’t increase.

However, the results conform to the changes in the plantation theory. By the modifications in the theory, the assumption was abandoned regarding that a lot of television watching causes general extreme reactions for everyone. According to the new approach of the theory, the effects of television are in interaction with other fields. “Watching television causes far reaching effects in people in some sub-groups however it doesn’t cause these effects in some other people" (Seker, 2009: 111).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The following results were obtained in this research scrutinizing the effects of cartoons broadcasted in Turkish televisions on the socialization process of elementary education students (10-12).

It can be stated based on the findings of the study on television and the socialization of elementary education age children (10-12 years old group) that the children who watch cartoons in television for 3 hours and longer are more exposed to the socialization effect of animation.

According to the research, the socialization effect of animation films is the greatest in 12-13 years old group. It can be thought that cognitive maturity level of these children was effective on this result.

The effect of animation films on socialization was the lowest in 5th graders; and it was the greatest in 4th graders. It is thought that more intense interest of 4th graders in animation could cause this situation.

The socialization scale scores of the boys who participated in the research were higher. According to this, it is thought that the effect of cartoons on socialization was higher in the boys in comparison to the girls.

According to the research results, the effect of cartoons on socialization was the highest in the children whose family income was between 651-900 TL. The socialization scores regarding animation were higher in the children whose family income was 650 TL and under in comparison to the children whose monthly family income was between 1151-1400 TL. It is possible to interpret this situation as the greater effect of television on socialization of low income families.

The effect of cartoons on socialization was the greatest in children whose mothers are high school graduates. It is possible to state that the role of animation on socialization of the children whose mothers are college graduates is lower.

According to the research results, it is seen that the scores of socialization by television were higher in the students whose fathers are elementary school graduates in comparison to the other educational status groups. Based on these data, it is thought that educational status of the fathers was a factor on socialization. However, factors such as media usage, animation types and family attitude must be assessed together for the socialization process of children by animation.

There was no significant difference found between the sibling numbers in terms of socialization scale scores. The scale score was higher in the children with 1 sibling. It is thought that the effect of animation films on socialization could be higher in children with 1 sibling.

According to the results, as the animation film watching period increased, the score of socialization by animation increased; and an increase in television watching period did not increase the score of socialization by animation. The time assigned for animation during this period by the children did not increase with increasing television watching period.

The results of the study on the application stage regarding socialization by animation in the elementary school students showed that animation films had partial effect on the socialization of the elementary school students. This result coincides with the data of psychological and sociological researches on the socialization process. Based on the study conducted on the outcomes of researches in mass communication field; it is thought that the results on the partial effects of media support explaining the effects of animation films on television on socialization of the elementary school students. It may be appropriate to assess the plantation theory and the usages and satisfaction approach by this angle.

Animation films are effective on the socialization of elementary school students (10-12 years old group) just like socialization of family, school, friends and other individuals in society by other productions on television. However, it is not thought that animation films can socialize children positively or negatively completely just like other socializing effects in the society and environment. It may be appropriate to assess a far-reaching and complex process like socialization along with all other factors including animation productions rather than explaining it by only one factor.

REFERENCES

Aydın, B. (2005). Adolescent Psychology. Istanbul, Turkey: Atlas Publishing.

Aydın, B., Agır, M., Akbag, M., Tuzcuoglu, S., &Yaycı, L. (2005). Development and Learning, Ankara, Nobel Publishing.

Baymur, F. B. (1972). General Psychology. Istanbul, Bağcılar, Turkey: Inkilap Bookstore and Trading Co.

Erdogan, I. (1998). An Evaluation on Gerbner' Cultivation Thesis and his stories. Retrieved July 21st, 2012 from http://www.irfanerdogan.com/makaleler1/gerbner.html

Erturk, S. (1982). Curriculum Development. Ankara, Turkey: Yelkentepe Publications.

Gerbner, G. (1969). Toward “cultural indicators”: The analysis of mass mediated public message systems. Educational Technology Research and Development, 17(2), 137-148.

Gerbner, G. (1998). Cultivation analysis: An overview. Mass Communication and Society, 1(3-4), 175-194.

Gerbner, G., & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of communication, 26(2), 172-194.

Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1986). Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. Perspectives on media effects, 17-40.

Karasar, N. (2002). Research Methods: Concepts, Principles, Techniques. Ankara, Turkey: Nobel Publishing.

Morgan, C. T. (1998). Introduction to Psychology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY.

Seker, N. T. (2009). Technology and Television. Istanbul, Turkey: Litertürk.

Senyapılı, Ö. (2003). Film and Design. Istanbul, Turkey: Dimension Books.

*This study has been generated from the Ph.D thesis (Demir, Özcan [2013]) titled “The Evaluation of The Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary School Students' Socialization Process”

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

...........................................................................................................................................

Journal of Learning and Teaching in Digital Age. All rights reserved, 2016. ISSN:2458-8350